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不锈钢知识

返回列表 来源: 发布日期: 2018.12.09

不锈钢知识如下:

The knowledge of stainless steel is as follows:


不锈钢的定义

Definition of stainless steel


在空气中或化学腐蚀介质中能够抵抗腐蚀的一种高合金钢,不锈钢是具有美观的表面和耐腐蚀性能好,不必经过镀色等表面处理,而发挥不锈钢的所固有的表面性能,使用于多方面的钢铁的一种,通常称为不锈钢。代表性能的有13铬钢,18-铬镍钢等高合金钢。

Stainless steel is a kind of high alloy steel which can resist corrosion in air or chemical corrosive medium.Stainless steel is a kind of steel which has beautiful surface and good corrosion resistance.It does not need to be treated by surface treatment such as plating.It can make full use of the inherent surface properties of stainless steel.The representative properties include 13 chromium steel,18- chromium nickel steel and other high alloy steels.

从金相学角度分析,因为不锈钢含有而使表面形成很薄的胳膜,这个膜隔离开与钢内侵入的氧气起耐腐蚀的作用。为了保持不锈钢所固有的耐腐蚀性,钢必须含有12%以上的铬。

From a metallographic point of view,because stainless steel contains the surface of the formation of a very thin tunica,this membrane isolated from the intrusion of oxygen into the steel to play a corrosion-resistant role.In order to maintain the inherent corrosion resistance of stainless steel,the steel must contain more than 12% chromium.


1




不锈钢的发展历史

History of stainless steel development


中华民族是世界上最早冶铁炼钢的国家,我们的祖先远在三千年前就掌握了一些冶铁、炼钢、铸锻和热处理的技艺,比欧洲各国要早1700多年,对世界文明与人类进步作出过重要的贡献。

The Chinese nation is the earliest country in the world to smelt iron and steel.Our ancestors mastered some techniques of smelting iron, steelmaking,casting and forging,and heat treatment as far back as 3000 years ago.They were more than 1700 years earlier than European countries and made important contributions to world civilization and human progress.


钢铁对于现代化的工农业生产、交通运输、国防乃至人民生活来说,已成为最基本、最重要的材料。当前,尽管各种新型的无机材料和有机合成材料已得到很大发展。但从生产成衡量一个国家国力的重要标志之一。钢铁材料之所以得到如此广泛的应用是因为铁矿矿藏集中,贮藏量大,开采、冶炼比较经济,钢铁半成品冷、热变形能力强。制成品具有优良的力学性能(强度、塑性及抗冲击能力)和加工性能(切削、焊接、冷变形等)。但是与硅酸材料、高分子合成材料及某些有色金属相比,它的最大的缺点是:在大气或酸、碱、盐等各种介质条件下,易于因腐蚀而失重损耗,乃至完全破坏。

Iron and steel has become the most basic and important material for modern industrial and agricultural production,transportation, national defense and even people's lives.At present,although various new inorganic materials and organic synthetic materials have been greatly developed.But it is one of the important signs of a country's national strength from production to scale.The reason why iron and steel materials are so widely used is that iron ore deposits are concentrated,reserves are large, mining and smelting are relatively economical,and semi-finished steel products have strong cold and hot deformation capacity.The finished products have excellent mechanical properties (strength,plasticity and impact resistance) and processing properties (cutting,welding,cold deformation,etc.).But compared with silicic acid materials,polymer synthetic materials and some non-ferrous metals,its biggest drawback is:in the atmosphere or acid, alkali,salt and other media conditions,it is easy to lose weight due to corrosion,and even completely destroyed.


2


不锈钢的种类

Types of stainless steel


不锈钢可以按用途、化学成分及金相组织来大体分类。

Stainless steel can be broadly classified according to its use, chemical composition and metallographic structure.


以奥氏体系类的钢由18%铬-8%镍为基本组成,各元素的加入量变的不同,而开发各种用途的钢种。

Austenitic steels consist of 18% Cr - 8% Ni,and the amount of each element varies. Various kinds of steels are developed.


以化学成分分类:1、Cr系列:铁素体系列、马氏体系列;2、Cr-Ni系列:奥氏体系列、异常系列、析出硬化系列。

Classified by chemical composition:1.Cr series:ferrite series, martensite series;2.Cr-Ni series:austenite series,abnormal series, precipitation hardening series.


以金相组织的分类:1、奥氏体不锈钢;2、铁素体不锈钢;3、马氏体不锈钢;4、双相不锈钢;5、沉淀硬化不锈钢。

Classification of metallographic structure:1.Austenitic stainless steel;2.Ferritic stainless steel;3.Martensitic stainless steel;4. Duplex stainless steel;5.Precipitation hardening stainless steel.


3


不锈钢钢种的发展

Development of stainless steel

1910-1914年诞生的组织分别为马氏体、铁素体和奥氏体的不锈钢,从化学成分来看,主要属Fe-Cr和Fe-Cr-Ni两大体系。从第一次世界大战结束到第二次世界大战结束的近三十年中(即1919年至1945年)。随着各种工业的发展,不锈钢为适应工作条件而发生了分化,即在原来两大体系三种组织状态的基础上,通过增减碳含量和添加多种其它的合金元素而衍生出了许多新型的不锈钢。从二次大战结束直至目前为止的三十多年中,主要为适应抗海水或盐类腐蚀,吸收Y射线及中子,获得超高强度、节约镍等需要而发展了抗点蚀不锈钢、原子能工业用不锈钢、沉淀硬化不锈钢和锰氮代镍不锈钢。

From 1910 to 1914,stainless steel with martensite,ferrite and austenite was formed,which mainly belonged to Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni systems.Nearly thirty years from the end of the First World War to the end of the Second World War (1919-1945).With the development of various industries,stainless steel has been differentiated to suit the working conditions,that is,on the basis of the original three kinds of structure of the two systems,many new types of stainless steel have been derived by increasing or decreasing carbon content and adding many other alloying elements.In the past 30 years from the end of World War II to the present,pitting-resistant stainless steel,stainless steel for atomic energy industry,precipitation hardening stainless steel and manganese-nitrogen Nickel-Substituted stainless steel have been developed to meet the needs of resisting seawater or salt corrosion,absorbing Y-rays and neutrons,obtaining ultra-high strength and saving nickel.


近年来,为了解决奥氏体不锈钢的晶间腐蚀和应力腐蚀问题,又分别发展了超低碳不锈钢和超纯铁素体不锈钢。目前,已投入市场的不锈钢的品种已达到了230种以上,经常使用的也有近50种,其中约有80%是奥氏体不锈钢(18铬-8镍)的衍生物,而其余20%则是由13铬钢演变而成的。关于不锈钢钢种的最主要的研究和发展是集中在两个方面:

In recent years, ultra-low carbon stainless steel and ultra-pure ferritic stainless steel have been developed to solve the problems of intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion of austenitic stainless steel.At present,more than 230 kinds of stainless steel have been put into market,and there are nearly 50 kinds of stainless steel which are often used.About 80% of them are derivatives of austenitic stainless steel (18 Cr-8 Ni),while the other 20% are evolved from 13 Cr steel.The main research and development of stainless steel are concentrated on two aspects:steel.The main research and development of stainless steel are concentrated on two aspects:


第一方面是改善钢的耐腐蚀性,其中对18-8钢晶间腐蚀问题的研究,不仅发展了钢种,提出了解决这个问题的工艺方法。还促进了有关不锈钢的纯化和腐蚀肌理的研究。

The first aspect is to improve the corrosion resistance of steel.The study on intergranular corrosion of 18-8 steel not only develops steel grades,but also puts forward the technological methods to solve this problem.It also promoted the research on the purification and corrosion texture of stainless steel.


第二个方面是发展高度不锈钢(即沉淀硬化不锈钢),这种钢是二次大战后随着航空、航天和火箭技术的进展而发展起来的。其中半奥氏体沉淀硬化不锈钢具有优异的工艺性能(17-7PH类),固溶处理后极易加工成形。且随后的强化热处理(时效处理)温度不高变形很小,在美国这种钢多用于航空结构,并已大量生产,各国也都有类似钢种投入使用。

The second aspect is the development of highly stainless steel (precipitation hardened stainless steel),which was developed after World War II with advances in aerospace and rocket technology.Semi-austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steel has excellent technological properties (17-7PH class),and is easy to form after solution treatment.And the subsequent strengthening heat treatment (aging treatment) temperature is not high deformation is very small, in the United States,this steel is mostly used in aviation structures,and has been mass produced,similar steel has been put into use in various countries.


4


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Professional services international and domestic star-rated hotel overall metal design product consultation, program optimization, production deepening, processing and installation.

ZCMETAL专业服务景观、艺术、陈设类的金属雕塑的咨询、方案优化、制作深化、加工和安装。

Professional service landscape,art,display metal sculpture consultation,program optimization,production deepening,processing and installation.


ZCMETAL专业服务金属高端产品的整体解决方案和系统落地执行者。

The overall solution and system implementer of professional service metal high-end products.


广东东方彩票智造科技有限公司是一家设计开发、制造、销售、现场安装服务于一体的金属整体解决方案公司。本公司工厂占地面积约5000平方米,拥有电脑辅助软件,先进的机械设备、把产品、工艺性能设计、切割、焊接、成型等服务制造出高档金属制品。通过分解和制造过程中与专业团队的合作,我们为客户提供了更好的产品体验、完整的服务体系和最佳的解决方案。我们与世界顶尖的设计公司HBA、CCD & UAP 以及世界著名的酒店,(威斯汀、喜来登、希尔顿 & 四季)的长期合作。
Guangdong Zhongchuang Intellectually manufacturing Technology Co.,Ltd. is a metal solution company which integrates design, development, manufacturing, sales, on-site installation and service. The company's factory covers an area of about 5000 square meters, with computer-aided software, advanced mechanical equipment, product, process performance design, cutting, welding, forming and other services to produce high-grade metal products. Through the cooperation with professional teams in the process of decomposition and manufacturing, we provide customers with better product experience, complete service system and the best solution. We work with the world's top design companies HBA, CCD & UAP and world-famous hotels (Westin, Sheraton, Hilton & Four Seasons)Long term cooperation.

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Guangdong Zhongchuang Intellectually manufacturing Technology Co.,Ltd.

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